Endnotes

References


Section 2: Student Achievement

1Joshua Furgeson, Brian Gill, Joshua Haimson, Alexandra Killewald, Moira McCullough, Ira Nichols-Barrer, Bing-ru Teh, et al., “Charter-School Management Organizations: Diverse Strategies and Diverse Student Impacts,” Cambridge, Mass.: Mathematica Policy Research, 2012. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/education/cmo_final_updated.pdf
2Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO), “National Charter School Study 2013,” Stanford, Calif.: CREDO at Stanford University, 2013. http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf
3Julian R. Betts and Y. Emily Tang, “A Meta-Analysis of the Literature on the Effect of Charter Schools on Student Achievement,” Seattle, Wash.: Center on Reinventing Public Education at the University of Washington Bothell, 2014. https://www.crpe.org/sites/default/files/CRPE_meta-analysis_charter-schools-effect-student-achievement_workingpaper.pdf
4Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO), “Charter Management Organizations 2017,” Stanford, Calif.: CREDO at Stanford University, 2017. https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/CMO%20FINAL.pdf
5CREDO, “Charter Management Organizations 2017.” https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/CMO%20FINAL.pdf
6CREDO, “National Charter School Study 2013.” http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf
7The study included 24 states, New York City and Washington, D.C. For the purposes of the study, CREDO treated New York City and Washington, D.C., as a separate state.
8CREDO, “Charter Management Organizations 2017.” https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/CMO%20FINAL.pdf
9Caroline M. Hoxby, Sonali Murarka and Jenny Kang, “How New York City’s Charter Schools Affect Achievement,” Cambridge, Mass.: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project, 2009. https://www.aeaweb.org/conference/2010/retrieve.php?pdfid=532
10Atila Abdulkadiroglu, Josh Angrist, Sarah Cohodes, Susan Dynarski, Jon Fullerton, Thomas Kane and Parag Pathak, “Informing the Debate: Comparing Boston’s Charter, Pilot and Traditional Schools,” Boston, Mass.: Boston Foundation, 2009. https://cepr.harvard.edu/files/cepr/files/cepr-informing-the-debate.pdf.
11CREDO, “National Charter School Study 2013.” http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf
12CREDO, “Charter Management Organizations 2017.” https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/CMO%20FINAL.pdf
13Philip Gleason, Melissa Clark, Christina Clark Tuttle and Emily Dwoyer, “The Evaluation of Charter School Impacts: Final Report,” NCEE 2010-4029, Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 2010. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20104029/pdf/20104029.pdf
14Gleason et al., “Evaluation of Charter School Impacts.” https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20104029/pdf/20104029.pdf
15CREDO, “National Charter School Study 2013.” http://credo.stanford.edu/documents/NCSS%202013%20Final%20Draft.pdf
16Furgeson et al., “Charter-School Management Organizations.” http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/education/cmo_final_updated.pdf.
17Christina Clark Tuttle, Brian Gill, Philip Gleason, Virginia Knechtel, Ira Nichols-Barrer and Alexandra Resch, “KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes: Final Report,” Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, 2013. http://www.kipp.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/KIPP_Middle_Schools_Impact_on_Achievement_and_Other_Outcomes1.pdf
18Virginia Knechtel, Thomas Coen, Pia Caronongan, Nickie Fung and Lisbeth Goble, “Pre-Kindergarten Impacts Over Time: An Analysis of KIPP Charter Schools,” Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, 2017. http://www.kipp.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/KIPP-Pre-K-Impacts-Mathematica.pdf
19Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO), “Charter School Performance in Texas,” Stanford, Calif.: CREDO at Stanford University, 2017. https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/Texas%202017.pdf
20Hoxby, Murarka and Kang, “How New York City’s Charter Schools Affect Achievement.” https://www.aeaweb.org/conference/2010/retrieve.php?pdfid=532

Tuttle et al., “KIPP Middle Schools.” http://www.kipp.org/files/dmfile/KIPP_Middle_Schools_Impact_on_Achievement_and_Other_Outcomes1.pdf

Gleason et al., “Evaluation of Charter School Impacts.” https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20104029/pdf/20104029.pdf

Clark et al., “Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?” http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/pdfs/education/charterschools_wp.pdf.

Furgeson et al., “Charter-School Management Organizations.” http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/education/cmo_final_updated.pdf

Will Dobbie and Roland G. Fryer Jr., “Getting Beneath the Veil of Effective Schools: Evidence from New York City,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5, no. 4 (2013): 28–60. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/app.5.4.28.
21Gleason et al., “Evaluation of Charter School Impacts.” https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20104029/pdf/20104029.pdf

Clark et al., “Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?” http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/pdfs/education/charterschools_wp.pdf.
22Hoxby, Murarka and Kang, “How New York City’s Charter Schools Affect Achievement.” https://www.aeaweb.org/conference/2010/retrieve.php?pdfid=532

Joshua D. Angrist, Sarah R. Cohodes, Susan M. Dynarski, Parag A. Pathak and Christopher D. Walters, “Charter Schools and the Road to College Readiness: The Effects on College Preparation, Attendance and Choice,” Boston, Mass.: Boston Foundation and NewSchools Venture Fund, 2013. http://www.tbf.org/~/media/TBFOrg/Files/Reports/Charters%20and%20College%20Readiness%202013.pdf.
23Will Dobbie and Roland G. Fryer Jr., “The Medium-Term Impacts of High-Achieving Charter Schools on Non-Test Score Outcomes,” NBER Working Paper 19581, Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013. http://www.nber.org/papers/w19581.
24Ron Zimmer, Brian Gill, Kevin Booker, Stephane Lavertu, Tim R. Sass and John Witte, “Charter Schools in Eight States: Effects on Achievement, Attainment, Integration, and Competition,” Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2009. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG869.html
26Julia A. Gwynne and Paul T. Moore, “Chicago’s Charter High Schools: Organizational Features, Enrollment, School Transfers, and Student Performance,” Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Consortium on School Research, 2017. https://consortium.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Chicagos%20Charter%20High%20Schools-Nov2017-Consortium.pdf
28Kevin Booker, Brian Gill, Tim Sass and Ron Zimmer, “Charter High Schools’ Effects on Long-Term Attainment and Earnings, January 2014,” Mathematica Working Paper 29, Princeton, N.J.: Mathematica Policy Research, 2014. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/~/media/publications/PDFs/education/charter_long-term_wp.pdf.
29Will S. Dobbie and Roland G. Fryer Jr., “Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes,” NBER Working Paper 22502, Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016. https://www.nber.org/papers/w22502.pdf.
30Jack Buckley and Mark Schneider, “Do Charter Schools Promote Student Citizenship?” Occasional Paper No. 91, New York: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education at Columbia University, 2004. https://ncspe.tc.columbia.edu/working-papers/OP91.pdf
31Dobbie and Fryer, “Medium-Term Impacts of High-Achieving Charter Schools.” http://www.nber.org/papers/w19581
33Christina Clark Tuttle, Philip Gleason, Virginia Knechtel, Ira Nichols-Barrer, Kevin Booker, Gregory Chojnacki, Thomas Coen and Lisbeth Goble, “Final Report of KIPP’s Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation: Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes,” Washington, D.C.: Mathematica Policy Research, 2015. https://www.mathematica-mpr.com/our-publications-and-findings/publications/executive-summary-understanding-the-effect-of-kipp-as-it-scales-volume-i-impacts-on-achievement
34Ron Zimmer and Richard Buddin, “Is Charter School Competition in California Improving the Performance of Traditional Public Schools?” Public Administration Review 69, no. 5 (2009): 831–45. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02033.x/abstract
35Robert Bifulco and Helen F. Ladd, “The Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement: Evidence from North Carolina,” Education Finance and Policy 1, no. 1 (2006): 50–90. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/edfp.2006.1.1.50#.VJM3TivF_To.
36Zimmer et al., “Charter Schools in Eight States.” http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG869.html
37Tomeka M. Davis, “Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools,” Education Policy Analysis Archives 21, no. 88 (2013): 1–29. http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1279.
38Kevin Booker, Scott M. Gilpatric, Timothy Gronberg and Dennis Jansen, “The Effect of Charter Schools on Traditional Public School Students in Texas: Are Children Who Stay Behind Left Behind?” Journal of Urban Economics 64, no. 1 (2008): 123–45. http://people.terry.uga.edu/mustard/courses/e4250/Charters-Texas-2008.pdf.
39Bifulco and Ladd, “Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement.” http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/edfp.2006.1.1.50#.VJM3TivF_To

Yusuke Jinnai, “Direct and Indirect Impact of Charter Schools’ Entry on Traditional Public Schools: New Evidence from North Carolina,” Economics Letters 124, no. 3 (2014): 452–56. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165176514002717.
40Tim R. Sass, “Charter Schools and Student Achievement in Florida,” Education Finance and Policy 1, no. 1 (2006): 91–122. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/edfp.2006.1.1.91.
41Marcus A. Winters, “Measuring the Effect of Charter Schools on Public School Student Achievement in an Urban Environment: Evidence from New York City,” Economics of Education Review 31, no. 2 (2012): 293–301. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775711001476.
42Sarah A. Cordes, “In Pursuit of the Common Good: The Spillover Effects of Charter Schools on Public School Students in New York City,” Arlington Heights, Ill.: Heartland Institute, 2017. https://www.heartland.org/publications-resources/publications/in-pursuit-of-the-common-good-the-spillover-effects-of-charter-schools-on-public-school-students-in-new-york-city
43Yongmei Ni, “The Impact of Charter Schools on the Efficiency of Traditional Public Schools: Evidence from Michigan,” Economics of Education Review 28, no. 5 (2009): 571–84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775709000235.
44Scott A. Imberman, “The Effect of Charter Schools on Achievement and Behavior of Public School Students,” Journal of Public Economics 95, nos. 7–8 (2011): 850–63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272711000193.


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Charter Schools In Perspective is an effort to enlighten and improve the conversation about charter schools in the United States. The In Perspective series provides an analysis of current research; suggests important questions for policymakers and journalists to ask; and offers discussion material to inform voters and help communities hold civil, productive dialogue on education issues. In Perspective is a joint project of the Spencer Foundation and Public Agenda, both nonpartisan organizations. Join the conversation. #InPerspective